I want to organize and post all the studies I can find on diet composition and their results in one easy to find place. Here is where I will post them. I will update this entry periodically.
Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.
Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, Kim S, Stafford RS, Balise RR, Kraemer HC, King AC.
Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, Calif, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
- JAMA. 2007 Jul 11;298(2):178.
Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately.
To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women.
Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing.
Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (P<.05). Mean 12-month weight loss was as follows: Atkins, -4.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -3.1 kg), Zone, -1.6 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.4 kg), LEARN, -2.6 kg (-3.8 to -1.3 kg), and Ornish, -2.2 kg (-3.6 to -0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups.
In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic effects than those assigned to the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets [corrected] While questions remain about long-term effects and mechanisms, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet may be considered a feasible alternative recommendation for weight loss.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00079573.
Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women.
McAuley KA, Hopkins CM, Smith KJ, McLay RT, Williams SM, Taylor RW, Mann JI.
Edgar National Centre for Diabetes Research, Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. email@example.com
- Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):1033.
A diet low in saturated fatty acids and rich in wholegrains, vegetables and fruit is recommended in order to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However there is widespread interest in high-fat ("Atkins Diet") and high-protein ("Zone Diet") alternatives to the conventional high-carbohydrate, high-fibre approach. We report on a randomised trial that compared these two alternative approaches with a conventional diet in overweight insulin-resistant women.
Ninety-six normoglycaemic, insulin-resistant women (BMI >27 kg/m(2)) were randomised to one of three dietary interventions: a high-carbohydrate, high-fibre (HC) diet, the high-fat (HF) Atkins Diet, or the high-protein (HP) Zone Diet. The experimental approach was designed to mimic what might be achieved in clinical practice: the recommendations involved advice concerning food choices and were not prescriptive in terms of total energy. There were supervised weight loss and weight maintenance phases (8 weeks each), but there was no contact between the research team and the participants during the final 8 weeks of the study. Outcome was assessed in terms of body composition and indicators of cardiovascular and diabetes risk.
Body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides and insulin levels decreased with all three diets but, apart from insulin, the reductions were significantly greater in the HF and HP groups than in the HC group. These observations suggest that the popular diets reduced insulin resistance to a greater extent than the standard dietary advice did. When compared with the HC diet, the HF and HP diets were shown to produce significantly (p<0.01) greater reductions in several parameters, including weight loss (HF -2.8 kg, HP -2.7 kg), waist circumference (HF -3.5 cm, HP -2.7 cm) and triglycerides (HF -0.30 mmol/l, HP [corrected] -0.22 mmol/l). LDL cholesterol decreased in individuals on the HC and HP diets, but tended to fluctuate in those on the HF diet to the extent that overall levels were significantly lower in the HP group than in the HF group (-0.28 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.04-0.52, p=0.02). Of those on the HF diet, 25% showed a >10% increase in LDL cholesterol, whereas this occurred in only 13% of subjects on the HC diet and 3% of those on the HP diet.
In routine practice a reduced-carbohydrate, higher protein diet may be the most appropriate overall approach to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To achieve similar benefits on a HC diet, it may be necessary to increase fibre-rich wholegrains, legumes, vegetables and fruits, and to reduce saturated fatty acids to a greater extent than appears to be achieved by implementing current guidelines. The HF approach appears successful for weight loss in the short term, but lipid levels should be monitored. The potential deleterious effects of the diet in the long term remain a concern.
The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.
Claessens M, van Baak MA, Monsheimer S, Saris WH.
Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance.
The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects.
Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet.
Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups.
These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.
Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women.
Noakes M, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM.
CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Limited evidence suggests that a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss has metabolic advantages.
The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet with a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss on body composition, cardiovascular disease risk, nutritional status, and markers of bone turnover and renal function in overweight women.
The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 isocaloric 5600-kJ dietary interventions for 12 wk according to a parallel design: a high-protein (HP) or a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet.
One hundred women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 32 +/- 6 and age of 49 +/- 9 y completed the study. Weight loss was 7.3 +/- 0.3 kg with both diets. Subjects with high serum triacylglycerol (>1.5 mmol/L) lost more fat mass with the HP than with the HC diet (x +/- SEM: 6.4 +/- 0.7 and 3.4 +/- 0.7 kg, respectively; P = 0.035) and had a greater decrease in triacylglycerol concentrations with the HP (-0.59 +/- 0.19 mmol/L) than with the HC (-0.03 +/- 0.04 mmol/L) diet (P = 0.023 for diet x triacylglycerol interaction). Triacylglycerol concentrations decreased more with the HP (0.30 +/- 0.10 mmol/L) than with the HC (0.10 +/- 0.06 mmol/L) diet (P = 0.007). Fasting LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and C-reactive protein concentrations decreased with weight loss. Serum vitamin B-12 increased 9% with the HP diet and decreased 13% with the HC diet (P < 0.0001 between diets). Folate and vitamin B-6 increased with both diets; homocysteine did not change significantly. Bone turnover markers increased 8-12% and calcium excretion decreased by 0.8 mmol/d (P < 0.01). Creatinine clearance decreased from 82 +/- 3.3 to 75 +/- 3.0 mL/min (P = 0.002).
An energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet provides nutritional and metabolic benefits that are equal to and sometimes greater than those observed with a high-carbohydrate diet.
High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol.
Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB.
CSIRO Human Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
It is unclear whether high protein weight loss diets have beneficial effects on weight loss, abdominal fat mass, lipids, glucose and insulin compared to conventional low fat diets in subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) because of elevated glucose and triglyceride concentrations. Our objective was to determine the effects of high protein (HP) compared to standard protein (SP) diets on CVD risk in obese adults.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Data from three, 12 week, randomized parallel trials with subjects assigned to either HP or SP diet (5500-6500 kJ/day) were pooled. Weight, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), lipids, insulin and glucose were measured before and after weight loss. Data from 215 subjects (49.9+/-9.8 years, BMI 33.5+/-3.7 kg/m(2)), 108 HP, 107 SP were analyzed. Weight loss (HP diet 7.82+/-0.37 kg; SP diet 7.65+/-0.39 kg, NS) and total fat loss were not different (HP 6.8+/-4.3 kg; LP 6.4+/-4.7 kg, NS on intention to treat analysis). The reduction in triacylglycerol (TAG) was greater on HP than SP 0.48+/-0.07 mmol/L vs 0.27+/-0.06 mmol/L, (P<0.001). Subjects with TAG greater than the median (>1.54 mmol/L at baseline) lost more weight (HP 8.5+/-0.6; SP 6.9+/-0.6 kg, P=0.01, diet by TG group), total (HP 6.17+/-0.50 kg; SP 4.52+/-0.52 kg, P=0.007) and abdominal fat (HP 1.92+/-0.17 kg; SP 1.23+/-0.19 kg, P=0.005) on HP. Total cholesterol (12 vs 6%, HP vs SP) and TAG (39 vs 20%, HP vs SP) decreased to a greater extent in these subjects (both P</=0.05) on HP.
Short-term high protein weight loss diets had beneficial effects on total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in overweight and obese subjects and achieved greater weight loss and better lipid results in subjects at increased risk of CVD. These observations provide further information regarding the utility of this dietary approach in effectively managing body weight and composition and reducing CVD risk in overweight and obese individuals.
Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects.
Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Keogh JB, Luscombe ND, Wittert GA, Clifton PM.
CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
- Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Sep;28(9):1187.
To compare the long-term compliance and effects of two low-fat diets differing in carbohydrate to protein ratio on body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in obese subjects with hyperinsulinemia.
Outpatient, parallel, clinical intervention study of two groups of subjects randomly assigned to either a standard protein (SP; 15% protein, 55% carbohydrate) or high-protein (HP; 30% protein, 40% carbohydrate) diet, during 12 weeks of energy restriction (approximately 6.5 MJ/day) and 4 weeks of energy balance (approximately 8.3 MJ/day). Subsequently, subjects were asked to maintain the same dietary pattern for the succeeding 52 weeks with minimal professional support.
A total of 58 obese, nondietetic subjects with hyperinsulinemia (13 males/45 females, mean age 50.2 y, mean body mass index (BMI) 34.0 kg/m2, mean fasting insulin 17.8 mU/l) participated in the study.
: Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, CRP and sICAM-1 were measured at baseline and at weeks 16 and 68. Urinary urea/creatinine ratio was measured at baseline, week 16 and at 3 monthly intervals thereafter.
In total, 43 subjects completed the study with similar dropouts in each group (P=0.76). At week 68, there was net weight loss (SP -2.9+/-3.6%, HP -4.1+/-5.8%; P<0.44) due entirely to fat loss (P<0.001) with no diet effect [corrected]. Both diets significantly increased HDL cholesterol concentrations (P<0.001) and decreased fasting insulin, insulin resistance, sICAM-1 and CRP levels (P<0.05). Protein intake was significantly greater in HP during the initial 16 weeks (P<0.001), but decreased in HP and increased in SP during 52-week follow-up, with no difference between groups at week 68, indicating poor long-term dietary adherence behaviour to both dietary patterns.
Without active ongoing dietary advice, adherence to dietary intervention is poor. Nonetheless, both dietary patterns achieved net weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.